In 2020 there were 657 million women aged 45- 59, many contributing to the workforce throughout their menopausal years. Although the average age of the natural menopause is 51, it can occur earlier, either naturally or induced by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. While the menopause may cause no significant problems for some women, for others it is known to present considerable difficulties in both their personal and working lives. EMAS is therefore producing in 2021 a living online resource about menopause in the workplace.
International Labour Organization. ILOSTAT. Labour statistics on women. https://ilostat.ilo.org/topics/women
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD. Stat Labour force participation rate, by sex and age group. https://stats.oecd.org
The World Bank https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL
United Nations. The World’s Women 2020: Trends and Statistics. Women and men in the labour force. https://worlds-women-2020-data-undesa-hub.arcgis.com
United Nations World Population Prospects 2019 https://population.un.org/wpp
Unites States Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/topics/population.html
Women in the Workforce – Global: Quick Take Jan 30 2020. https://www.catalyst.org/research/women-in-the-workforce-global
Recommendations by menopause and healthcare societies
EMAS recommendations for conditions in the workplace for menopausal women.
Maturitas. 2016; 85: 79–81.
British Menopause Society: Tools for clinicians.
Hardy C. Menopause and the workplace guidance: What to consider.
Post Reprod Health. 2020 Mar;26(1):43-45. doi: 10.1177/2053369119873257. PMID: 32189550.
Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians.
Guidance on Menopause and the Workplace.
Recommendations and guidance by personnel (employer, management, employee) organizations
Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD). A guide for people professionals THE MENOPAUSE AT WORK March 2019.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work Women and the ageing workforce: implications for occupational safety and health – A research review 4 October 2016.
International Labour Organization.
The Contribution of Social Dialogue to Gender Equality. The Global Deal for Decent Work and Inclusive Growth. 29 March 2019.
Job Accommodation Network.
Is Menopause a Disability under the ADA?
14 March 2018.
Menopause Information Pack for Organizations (MIPO).
Menopause-Sensitive Resources. Menopause-Savvy Managers and Menopause-Friendly Environments. 2019.
Menopause at work. March 2020.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
Workplace health: management practices. NICE guideline [NG13] Published date: 24 June 2015. Last updated: 24 March 2016.
Society for Human Resource Management.
How to Accommodate Menopause at Work. 26 May 2015.
Menopause transition: effects on women’s economic participation.
Support organizations and sources of information:
Research on menopause in the workplace 2015- present:
Menopausal transition and change in employment: Evidence from the National Child Development Study.
Evandrou M, Falkingham J, Qin M, Vlachantoni A.
Maturitas. 2021 Jan;143:96-104. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.09.010. Epub 2020 Sep 30.
Blood Work: Managing Menstruation, Menopause and Gynaecological Health Conditions in the Workplace.
Sang K, Remnant J, Calvard T, Myhill K.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Feb 17;18(4):1951. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18041951.
Relationship between number of menopausal symptoms and work performance in Japanese working women.
Hashimoto K, Yoshida M, Nakamura Y, Takeishi Y, Yoshizawa T.
Menopause. 2020 Nov 23;28(2):175-181. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001698.
Using Digital Health Technologies to Manage the Psychosocial Symptoms of Menopause in the Workplace: A Narrative Literature Review.
Cronin C, Hungerford C, Wilson RL.
Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2020 Oct 7:1-8. doi: 10.1080/01612840.2020.1827101. Online ahead of print.
“I Get That Spirit in Me”-Mentally Empowering Workplace Health Promotion for Female Workers in Low-Paid Jobs during Menopause and Midlife.
Verburgh M, Verdonk P, Appelman Y, Brood-van Zanten M, Nieuwenhuijsen K.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 4;17(18):6462. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17186462.
Attitude, confidence and social norm of Dutch occupational physicians regarding menopause in a work context.
Geukes M, Oosterhof H, van Aalst MP, Anema JR.
Maturitas. 2020 Sep;139:27-32. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.05.015. Epub 2020 May 28.
The remains of the taboo: experiences, attitudes, and knowledge about menopause in the workplace.
Beck V, Brewis J, Davies A.
Climacteric. 2020 Apr;23(2):158-164. doi: 10.1080/13697137.2019.1656184. Epub 2019 Sep 19.
Temporality and Gendered Agency: Menopausal Subjectivities in Women’s Work.
Jack G, Riach K, Bariola E. Human Relations. 2019; 72(1): 122-143.
The relationship between menopausal symptoms and burnout. A cross-sectional study among nurses.
Converso D, Viotti S, Sottimano I, Loera B, Molinengo G, Guidetti G.
BMC Womens Health. 2019 Nov 27;19(1):148. doi: 10.1186/s12905-019-0847-6.
Effect of symptoms of climacteric syndrome, depression and insomnia on self-rated work ability in peri- and post-menopausal women in non-manual employment.
Humeniuk E, Bojar I, Gujski M, Raczkiewicz D.
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2019 Dec 19;26(4):600-605. doi: 10.26444/aaem/112838. Epub 2019 Nov 7.
Women Firefighters’ Health and Well-Being: An International Survey.
Watkins ER, Walker A, Mol E, Jahnke S, Richardson AJ.
Womens Health Issues. 2019 Sep-Oct;29(5):424-431. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2019.02.003. Epub 2019 Mar 28.
Menopause and the NHS: caring for and retaining the older workforce.
Br J Nurs. 2019 Sep 12;28(16):1086-1090. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2019.28.16.1086.
Rotating night shift work and menopausal age.
Stock D, Knight JA, Raboud J, Cotterchio M, Strohmaier S, Willett W, Eliassen AH, Rosner B, Hankinson SE, Schernhammer E.
Hum Reprod. 2019 Mar 1;34(3):539-548. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dey390.
Development and evaluation of online menopause awareness training for line managers in UK organizations.
Hardy C, Griffiths A, Hunter MS.
Maturitas. 2019 Feb;120:83-89. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.12.001. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Improvement of menopausal symptoms and the impact on work ability: A retrospective cohort pilot study.
Geukes M, Anema JR, van Aalst MP, de Menezes RX, Oosterhof H.
Maturitas. 2019 Feb;120:23-28. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.10.015. Epub 2018 Nov 5.
Menopause and work: an overview of UK guidance.
Hardy C, Hunter MS, Griffiths A.
Occup Med (Lond). 2018 Dec 26;68(9):580-586. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqy134.
Self-help cognitive behavior therapy for working women with problematic hot flushes and night sweats ([email protected]): a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Hardy C, Griffiths A, Norton S, Hunter MS.
Menopause. 2018 May;25(5):508-519. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001048.
Work outcomes in midlife women: the impact of menopause, work stress and working environment.
Hardy C, Thorne E, Griffiths A, Hunter MS.
Womens Midlife Health. 2018 Apr 9;4:3. doi: 10.1186/s40695-018-0036-z. eCollection 2018.
Improving recognition in the UK for menopause-related challenges to women’s working life.
Post Reprod Health. 2017 Dec;23(4):165-169. doi: 10.1177/2053369117734714. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
Influence of menopausal symptoms on perceived work ability among women in a Nigerian University.
Olajubu AO, Olowokere AE, Amujo DO, Olajubu TO.
Climacteric. 2017 Dec;20(6):558-563. doi: 10.1080/13697137.2017.1373336. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
Stress at the place of work and cognitive functions among women performing intellectual work during peri- and post-menopausal period.
Gujski M, Pinkas J, Juńczyk T, Pawełczak-Barszczowska A, Raczkiewicz D, Owoc A, Bojar I.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017 Oct 6;30(6):943-961. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01119. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
No sweat: managing menopausal symptoms at work.
Hickey M, Riach K, Kachouie R, Jack G.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2017 Sep;38(3):202-209. doi: 10.1080/0167482X.2017.1327520. Epub 2017 May 22.
Risk Assessment: Factors Contributing to Discomfort for Menopausal Women in Workplace.
Jafari M, Seifi B, Heidari M.
J Menopausal Med. 2017 Aug;23(2):85-90. doi: 10.6118/jmm.2017.23.2.85. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
PMID: 28951855. PMCID: PMC5606914.
What do working menopausal women want? A qualitative investigation into women’s perspectives on employer and line manager support.
Hardy C, Griffiths A, Hunter MS.
Maturitas. 2017 Jul;101:37-41. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.04.011.
Employment conditions and work-related stressors are associated with menopausal symptom reporting among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Bariola E, Jack G, Pitts M, Riach K, Sarrel P.
Menopause. 2017 Mar;24(3):247-251. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000751.
The impact of menopause on work ability in women with severe menopausal symptoms.
Geukes M, van Aalst MP, Robroek SJ, Laven JS, Oosterhof H.
Maturitas. 2016 Aug;90:3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.05.001. Epub 2016 May 4.
Menopausal vasomotor symptoms are associated with poor self-assessed work ability.
Gartoulla P, Bell RJ, Worsley R, Davis SR.
Maturitas. 2016 May;87:33-9. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.02.003. Epub 2016 Feb 8.
Menopause in the workplace: What employers should be doing.
Jack G, Riach K, Bariola E, Pitts M, Schapper J, Sarrel P.
Maturitas. 2016 Mar;85:88-95. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.12.006. Epub 2015 Dec 29.
Working women and the menopause.
Kopenhager T, Guidozzi F.
Climacteric. 2015 Jun;18(3):372-5. doi: 10.3109/13697137.2015.1020483. Epub 2015 Apr 1.
Incremental direct and indirect costs of untreated vasomotor symptoms.
Sarrel P, Portman D, Lefebvre P, Lafeuille MH, Grittner AM, Fortier J, Gravel J, Duh MS, Aupperle PM.
Menopause. 2015 Mar;22(3):260-6. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000320.